Kidney Transplant is for people whose kidneys have failed permanently; stopped working completely and are living on dialysis.
Age is not a factor to determine if somebody can undergo kidney transplant or not if the person is otherwise healthy he/she can go for a kidney transplant.
As soon as possible if the patient is having CKD Stage V or is already on dialysis. Doctors decide the best time of the surgery on the basis of patient history and medical condition.
Donor’s kidneys come from either living people or from a person who’s no more living (a deceased donor). In living donor transplantation case, a family member may be the spouse, siblings, parents, grandparents can donate a kidney to the recipient provided the potential donor does not have any prior medical or surgical diseases.
There are many factors which impact the process of Kidney Transplant, few are listed below:
1.Blood type compatibility–
A blood test of both recipient and donor is done to make sure if those are compatible blood groups or not. Which blood group can donate or receive from which one is summarized in the tabulated form below. Also, Rh factor (positive or negative) is not important in kidney transplantation. Kidney Transplant is also done where transplant across Blood Group is possible.
|Blood Type||Can receive a Kidney from||Can donate to|
|O||O||O, A, B, AB|
|A||A, O||A, AB|
|B||B, O||B, AB|
|AB||AB, A, B, O||AB|
2. Crossmatch Compatibility
In the lab, a sample of recipient’s serum is mixed with the cells of the donor. This is done to check whether the pre-existing antibodies to donor’s antigens are present or not. If the pre-existing antibodies are absent, crossmatch is negative. This test detects antibodies directed against the donor cells. This test is the minimum immunologic requirements for kidney transplantation surgery.
3.HLA tissue typing
This test identifies genetic markers, which we have got from our parents. Then comparison is done between recipients and donors genetic markers(Antigens)
It will take 4-5 hours to perform the surgery. The surgery for recipient and donor occurs at the same time (simultaneously) by the team of surgeons.
The surgery for recipient and donor occurs at the same time.
Donor’s side (Nephrectomy)
Mostly left kidney is the preferred kidney for removal, since it has longer vein than the right kidney from the donor. Still, at times, the right kidney can also be removed in case of any medical/technical difficulty. Donor’s Surgery can be done Laparoscopically also.
Doctors made an incision usually on the right side of the abdomen, then the artery and vein of the new kidney is attached to one of the arteries and veins, and then the new kidney’s ureter to the urinary bladder.
Complications of post-surgery are listed below:
Our body’s immune system protects us from infections by recognizing them as foreign material. Unluckily our immune system sees the new kidney as foreign material as well and starts destroying it. So, rejection is the most important concern after kidney transplantation surgery. It has been seen in 10-15 percent of patients. However, most of the people don’t lose the kidney to rejection. Rejection cases occurring early after transplantation is usually treatable, with the help of suppressants.
Immunosuppressive medication-These are the drugs made to suppress our immune system and transplant for life long.
To stay healthy one should stay away from smoke, alcohol and stick to healthy diet and exercise. Also, a person has to take immunosuppressants for long.
Risk of donating a kidney include a small risk of Hypertension. Some donors may develop proteinuria and very rarely, CKD.
The donor can experience pain. Painkillers are prescribed for that. Heavy lifting or physical activities are restricted initially. Follow-up visits after 2 weeks to make sure all biological functions are fine. Usually patient recovers in 2 weeks.
It depends upon the patient existing medical conditions the cost of Kidney Transplant comes out to be between 6.0-6.5 lacs INR.
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