What is UTI?

What is UTI? 

UTI stands for Urinary Tract Infection is an infection which can affect any part of the urinary system from kidneys to urethra. The tract includes kidney, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine leaves our body via this passage only. 

What are the causes of UTI?

The major cause for causing UTI is e.coli bacteria. These bacteria live in bowels, near the anus. Now the tube (urethra) which eliminates urine from our body is located near the anus, from where these bacteria invade urethra and start traveling up in the urinary tract.  It is being seen females are more prone to UTIs, because of their body’s anatomy. Sex can also introduce these bacteria in urinal passage.Depending on bacteria’s dwelling site, infections are named so:

Bladder infection (Cystitis)

  • Bacteria will start colonizing in Bladder. It majorly happens because of the short distance between the urethra and the anus. 

Pyelonephritis- 

  • If bacteria reach to kidneys,t his severe condition rises.

Urethra infection (Urethritis)–  

  • Seen mostly in the female, because the urethra is close to the vagina.


What are the symptoms of UTI?

  • Burning sensation after micturition(urinating)
  • Urge to urinate again and again, even though its small in amount.
  • Lower abdomen, pelvic pain
  • Cloudy, strong bad smell urine.
  • In pyelonephritis fever, nausea, vomiting and shaking chills like symptoms appear.

Who are will be at risk?

  • People with kidney stones
  • After menopause – after menopause, estrogen levels decrease in the body leading to few changes in the urinary tract in a woman, making urinary tract vulnerable to infections.
  • Enlarged prostate in men makes them prone to this infection. Prostatitis is caused by enlarged prostate and narrow downs the urethra, not letting bladder emptying completely. This is mostly seen in older man.
  • Woman using diaphragms for birth controls are at risk.
  • Sexual activities
  • Pregnant woman can also develop these UTIs
  • Suppressed immune system, weak defense system for body also increase risk of getting UTI

If such symptoms appear, one should see physicians.

 

What will be the line of Treatment of UTI?

Physicians ask general questions related to the lifestyle of the patient like food habits, medical history etc.Physical examination followed by the lab test is done.Urinalysis is done which urine sample of the patient is taken to determine which microorganism has invaded the body and what antibiotics should be prescribed.If the case of recurring infection, ultrasound of kidney and bladder can be asked by the physician.

 

What will be preventive measures of UTI?

  • Intake of plenty of water
  • Avoid coffee, alcohol and spicy food
  • Many doctors recommend cranberry juice, it has been seen it helps in preventing UTIs
  • Wipe the genitals from front to back
  • Clean the genitals before having sex and micturate after sex, to eliminate any bacteria if have entered during sex.
  • Wear neat and tidy cotton undergarments. Avoid wearing tight clothes, it retains moisture which may give an environment to infections to develop.
  • Scented shower gels should be avoided, it increases irritation.

What are the complications of UTI?

If promptly taken care, then very rarely further complications rise in UTIs.  But if left untreated, it may lead to some serious complications. Likewise: –

  • Recurrent infections
  • Permanent kidney damage, chronic kidney infection
  • Sepsis, if infection travels to kidneys it can lead to life-threatening complications.
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